Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara
North Penajam Paser Region was once an area inhabited by the Paser Tunan Tribe and the Paser Balik Tribe. The two tribes are from the Paser Tribe who currently live in Paser Regency.
Quoting the official website of the Culture of the Ministry of Education and Culture, in the beginning, life in Penajam Paser Utara was made up of tribal groups that lived in scattering. They then established small kingdoms later called the Kingdom of Adat.
At that time, the people’s livelihood was hereditary as fishermen and farmers. The traditional kingdoms they built were around rivers and bays in the Penajam area.
Samarinda, which is known as a city as it used to be, was once one of the regions of the Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara ing Martadipura. In the 13th century AD (1201-1300), before the name Samarinda was known, there were already villages in six locations, namely Pulau Atas, Karangasan (Karang Asam), Karamumus (Karang Mumus), Luah Bakung (Loa Bakung), Sembuyutan ( Welcome) and Mangkupelas (Mangkupalas). The mention of the six villages above is listed in the manuscript of the letter Salasilah Raja Kutai Kartanegara written by Khatib Muhammad Tahir in 30 Rabiul Awal 1265 H (February 24, 1849 AD). 
In 1565, a migration of the Banjar tribe from Batang Banyu to the mainland of eastern Kalimantan. At that time the Banjar group from Amuntai under the leadership of Aria Manau from the Kuripan (Hindu) Kingdom pioneered the establishment of the Sadurangas Kingdom (Balengkong Sand) in the Paser area. Furthermore, the Banjar tribe also spread in the territory of the Kingdom of Kutai Kartanegara, which included areas in what is now Samarinda.
Balikpapan is a city in the province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. As a business and industrial center, the city has the largest economy in all of Kalimantan, with total GDP reaching IDR79.65 trillion in 2016.  In terms of population, Balikpapan is the second largest city in East Kalimantan (after Samarinda) with a total population of 645,727 in 2018.  Balikpapan is the main gateway to the new capital of Indonesia, with Semayang Port and Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman International Airport; both are the busiest in Kalimantan.
Kabupaten Kutai Kartanegara
Kutai Kartanegara Regency is a district in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The capital city is in Tenggarong District.
Kutai Kartanegara Regency has an area of 27,263.10 km² and an area of water around 4,097 km² which is divided into 18 districts and 225 villages / villages with a population of 626,286 inhabitants (2010 census). Part of this regency area and North Penajam Paser Regency will be the location of the new capital city.
Berau Regency is one of the districts in the Province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The capital of the district is located in Tanjung Redeb. This regency has an area of 34,127.47 km² and has a population of approximately 179,079 inhabitants.
Berau Regency originated from the Berau Sultanate which was founded around the 14th century. According to the history of Berau, the first King who ruled was named Baddit Dipattung with the title Aji Raden Surya Nata Kesuma and his wife named Baddit Kurindan with the title Aji Empress. The center of the royal government was initially located on the Lati River (now a coal mining location of PT. Berau Coal).
Aji Raden Suryanata Kesuma carried out his reign in 1400–1432 fairly and wisely, so that the welfare of his people increased. At that time he succeeded in uniting the residential area of the Berau community called Banua, namely Banua Merancang, Banua Pantai, Banua Kuran, Banua Rantau Buyut and Banua Rantau Sewakung.
Kabupaten Mahakam Ulu
Mahakam Ulu Regency is one of the districts in the province of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Mahakam Ulu is the result of the division of West Kutai Regency which was ratified in the plenary session of the DPR RI on December 14, 2012 in the DPR RI building on the Draft Law on the New Autonomous Region (DOB).
The term Mahakam Ulu as a social construction that is being fought for, has long historical roots. First appeared in connection with the administration of the Dutch East Indies to the Kutai Sultanate, following the adoption of Decentratie Wet 1903, then in 1905 the Kutai Sultanate formed two administrative regions namely Hulu Mahakam with a central government in Long Iram, and the Vierkante Pall area with a central government in Samarinda.
In 1930, the Kutai Sultanate was further divided into 4 Onderafdeeling, namely Zuid Kutai domiciled in Balikpapan, Oost Kutai domiciled in Samarinda, West Kutai domiciled in Tenggarong and Boven Mahakam domiciled in Long Iram.
Mahakam is the name of the largest river in the province of East Kalimantan which empties into the Makassar Strait. The river with a length of about 920 km crosses the area of West Kutai Regency in the upstream part, up to the Kutai Kartanegara Regency and Samarinda City in the downstream. In the river lives the endangered species of freshwater fish mammals, the Pesut Mahakam.
Mahakam River has always played an important role in the lives of surrounding communities as a source of water, fishery potential and as a transportation infrastructure.
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